When it comes upgrading your outdoor area, installing a deck is a relatively quick and cost effective way to create a beautiful but hardwearing area for entertaining.
Decking not only adds value to a home, it’s easy to care for and will help to increase the amount of usable space within a garden. Made from timber, decking is natural element that injects warmth into an outdoor area while looking elegant and remaining timeless.
At House of Home we love everything about using timber in the home, so much so that a few months ago we featured a two-part story from our friends at the Timber Merchants Association (TMA) regarding selecting the right timber floor for your needs, including; Choosing Timber Flooring: Part 1 of 2 as well as Choosing Timber Flooring: Part 2 of 2.
Their advice was spot-on and so well received by our readers that we invited them to chat to us again – this time about their favourite topic - decking.
In this guide to decking we cover the following important information.
We hope you find this every bit as informative and thanks again to TMA for their invaluable advice and expertise.
The most common species on the market are:
There are also alternative products such as:
Modwood (wood fibre/plastic composite)
Enspire laminated bamboo decking
Lunarwood thermally treated European softwood
Accoya specially treated European softwood is also appropriate.
Treated Pine is a softwood and is used more often because it is at the lower end of the cost range; it is preservative treated against fungus growth and termite attack. Cypress Pine is not that commonly used as a decking timber in Victoria, it doesn’t need to be treated and is naturally resistant to fungus growth and termite attack. It is mostly used for fence pickets and posts for fences, pergolas etc.
Merbau, Spotted Gum, Blackbutt and Yellow Stringybark are durable hardwood species. Merbau is imported from Malaysia and the others are Australian grown eucalypt hardwoods. Generally speaking, Treated Pine and Cypress Pine can be slightly cheaper than the Australian hardwoods.
Firstly, consider what colour are you looking for?
Treated Pine and Cypress are light coloured timbers, Merbau is dark red, Spotted Gum varies from cream to brown to red colourings, Blackbutt and Yellow stringy bark are paler coloured hardwoods.
Softwood or hardwood?
Softwoods such as Treated Pine mark easily and may not stand up to heavy foot traffic areas, so the better choice is a hardwood species.
How long the timber will last is another crucial consideration.
Treated pine timber is sold with an expected service life of 25 years and the Class 1 and 2 durable hardwoods should have a service life of 30 year. However, the eventual service life depends on the level of ongoing maintenance.
For example the type of coating used (water based or oil based), whether a recoating program according to the manufacturer’s guidelines on the can has been followed and the appropriate fixings have been used (normally hot dipped galvanised nails/screws or stainless steel fixings for coastal areas).
What age of timber is best?
This is not such an important item, assuming that the timber merchant has kept their timber decking stock stored in a suitably protected area, otherwise unrestrained timber decking will warp and twist if allowed to get wet/stored out in the open in the yard, etc.
However, always insist on the timber being as straight as possible, don’t try and use bowed or twisted pieces.
What kind of timber Hazard Grade to look for?
Treated pine is the only hazard treated decking timber on the market and is normally treated to Hazard Level H3 for above ground use. Treatment is not required for Cypress Pine, Merbau and the other hardwood species timber.
Should one only use timber graded from H3 to H6, as this will be more durable and have a longer lifespan? If Treated Pine timber is used for in-ground decking stumps, it is normally sold as treated to Hazard Level H5.
This is because water drainage underneath most decks can be inefficient and this level of treatment is recommended and an in-ground service life of up to 70 years may be expected. Treated Pine timber used for bearers and joists will be preservative treated to H3 hazard level as standard for above ground use and has a normal service life of 25 years.
Under the Victorian Building Regulations-2006, the following conditions apply:
If the deck is free standing and no more than 10 square metres in area, and no higher above natural ground than 800mm (0.8m), a building permit is not required.
If the deck is free standing and more than 10 square metres in area, irrespective of height above ground, then a building permit would be required.
If the deck is attached to the house and irrespective of the area size and height above natural ground level, a building permit would be required.
Sometimes the timber merchant may provide one or two references to the builder/carpenter customers that you can approach for a quote, otherwise check the listings in the local newspaper classifieds and try two or three of these for a quote.
Check out their specific experience, ask for references to previous clients/jobs that you might be able to call and possibly go and inspect the work that has been done, and reaction from the clients.
Are they a registered building practitioner and are they a member of a recognised industry organisation ie: HIA or MBA Vic? Ask what timber finish they recommend, what timber species they have used in previous projects, what type of fixings they would use, do they comply with recommendations?
There are several CFT (composite fibre technology ) products on the market that comprise a mixture of wood fibre in one form or another and either virgin or recycled plastic in the manufacture. Some are made in Australia, others are imported from USA and Europe.
One of the more popular brands is Modwood and has apparently performed very well in service; in addition Modwood have recently introduced a bush fire rated decking called Flame Shield that is approved for use as exterior decking in areas designated as BAL-40 rating and requires virtually no maintenance.
Generally, small area low level decks can be undertaken by a competent DIY handyman as there are several published guide manuals available showing how to construct a deck, what timber sizes should be used for stumps, bearers, joists, decking etc., fixing guidelines etc.
Structures more than, say, 10 square metres and over 800mm (0.8m) above ground should be constructed by a tradesperson with appropriate experience/reputation and especially where a building permit is required by regulation.
Also, a handrail is usually required for decks above 800mm (0.8m) height above ground. Steps will be involved at some stage and when that occurs, a tradesman is generally more competent to construct these than the average DIY.
If a council permit is required, a qualified tradesman is mandatory to do the job.
Ensure there is good sub-floor ventilation and proper water drainage is allowed for
Gaps between decking boards should be at least 4.0mm for boards up to 90mm width and at least 6.0mm for decking boards up to 140mm width
Before installing any decking, all the boards should be coated ON BOTH SIDES and cut/trimmed ends, using an oil based coating product (such as CUTEK CD50)
Then, after installation is completed, a second full coating should be applied.
This coating practice will help to stabilise the timber and suppress sap bleeding (such as occurs with Merbau).
A waterproof membrane such as Malthoid strips should be installed over the top of the joists underneath the decking boards, because this is usually the point where the decking timber may rot over time because it never really dries out, in similar fashion to the post and rail joints in a standard timber paling fence.
A decking screw or nail designed for the application (such as ‘Timberdeck’ nails) should be used, always hot dipped galvanised or stainless steel, if close to water either fresh or saltwater, stainless steel should ALWAYS be used.
Use the correct length of fixing, whether nails or screws; if the joist timber is treated pine (the most used timber species) then the nail or screw used to fix the decking boards should be 65mm long for 19mm thick boards and 75mm long for 32mm boards and the size should be at least 10 gauge.
Always pre-drill a pilot or countersink hole when using decking screws and always pre-drill when making a decking butt joint over a joist. This will help to stop the boards splitting and cracking.
Following these straightforward guidelines will ensure a satisfactory result for the best service life from any decking project, whether constructed by a competent DIY or a tradesman.
Decking areas around a swimming pool should be well maintained with annual coating restoration prior to each summer season, never exceed the recommended board spacing because all hardwoods will shrink a little over time and a gap could develop that a narrow heel will fall into therefore becomes dangerous.
Use a good coating product (preferably oil based) according to the manufacturer’s instructions on the can, and apply at the intervals recommended. Typical brands might be Haymes ‘Dexpress’, CUTEK CD50, Sikkens and Timbercoat.
If you use a clear coating product, be aware that the timber will eventually ‘weather’ to a silver grey colour, even if you apply another coat every year, as the UV inhibitors eventually lose their effectiveness.
The best way to preserve the natural colour of the timber (for example, the reddish colour of Merbau), is by using a pigmented coating that contains a colouring to match the original timber colour should be used (all oil based coating manufacturers have these).
Discover more about Choosing Timber Flooring: Part 1 of 2
We hope you found this article helpful. If you are ready to start building your wish list of products, then be sure and check out our Timber Decking range.
House of Home is an online marketplace. We bring together retailers from across Australia and let you search 80,000 plus products in one location. There’s no place like it.
Image credit: crazyautomotive.com